Obesity

Obesity is no longer considered a cosmetic issue that is caused by overeating and a lack of self-control. The World Health Organization (W.H.O.), along with National and International medical and scientific societies, now recognize obesity as a chronic progressive disease resulting from multiple environmental and genetic factors.

The disease of obesity is extremely costly not only in terms of economics, but also in terms of individual and societal health, longevity, and psychological well-being. Due to its progressive nature, obesity requires life-long treatment and control.


Diabetes

Diabetes is a group of diseases that affect insulin production and use. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas can no longer produce insulin. The cause is not known. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin, or it can’t be used effectively. Type 2 diabetes can be caused by a number of factors, including poor diet, lack of exercise, and carrying too much weight.

In 2012, about 1.5 million people died from diabetes-related causes, according to WHO. People in low to middle income countries are more likely to die from complications of diabetes.


Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body.Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body. Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death.

Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including arteries in the heart, brain, arms, legs, pelvis, and kidneys. As a result, different diseases may develop based on which arteries are affected.


Stroke

A stroke is a "brain attack". It can happen to anyone at any time. It occurs when blood flow to an area of brain is cut off. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of oxygen and begin to die. When brain cells die during a stroke, abilities controlled by that area of the brain such as memory and muscle control are lost.

How a person is affected by their stroke depends on where the stroke occurs in the brain and how much the brain is damaged. For example, someone who had a small stroke may only have minor problems such as temporary weakness of an arm or leg. People who have larger strokes may be permanently paralyzed on one side of their body or lose their ability to speak. Some people recover completely from strokes, but more than 2/3 of survivors will have some type of disability.


Hypertension

Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart conditions caused by high blood pressure. A number of different heart disorders are caused by the heart working under increased pressure. Hypertensive heart disease includes heart failure, thickening of the heart muscle, coronary artery disease, and other conditions. Hypertensive heart disease can cause serious health problems and is the leading cause of death from high blood pressure.


Liver cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a complication of liver disease which involves loss of liver cells and irreversible scarring of the liver.Alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C are common causes of cirrhosis, although there are many other causes.

Complications of cirrhosis include edema and ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bleeding from varices, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, hypersplenism, and liver cancer.


Nephritis

Lupus nephritis is inflammation of the kidney that is caused by systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). Also called lupus, SLE is an autoimmune disease. With lupus, the body's immune system targets its own body tissues. Lupus nephritis happens when lupus involves the kidneys.

Symptoms of Lupus Nephritis

  • Weight gain
  • High blood pressure
  • Dark urine
  • Foamy, frothy urine
  • The need to urinate during the night